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Aluminum Oxide Sandblasting Sand Suppliers

It occurs on the cathode carbon block in contact with the molten aluminum, and also on the side carbon block without electrolyte furnace side protection(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). When the level of molten aluminum in the tank decreases, the generated a mountain C3 contacts with the electrolyte and dissolves. Metal aluminum may react with CO to form carbon(china brown fused alumina manufacturers). In the test electrolytic cell, the anode gas is reduced to carbon up to 3%. 


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The maximum solubility of al4c in the electrolyte (when the molecular ratio is 1.8) is 2.15%(white fused alumina factory). The reaction is that the electronic conductivity is mainly caused by dissolved sodium. When metal is dissolved in its own molten salt, it is easy to form a "color center", which has electronic conductivity(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers).  The electronic conductivity is like a short circuit, and the current loss caused by this is estimated to be about 1 ~ 2%, and aluminum contains a small amount of lithium(alumina grit).

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According to Kvana's statistics on 10 different series of industrial electrolyzers, the conclusion is that(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers): the temperature is reduced by 5~6℃, and the current efficiency can be increased by 1%. The electrolyte has weak electronic conductivity(aluminium oxide blast media). Haarberg et al "measured that the electronic conductivity of Na, alif-al2o3 (saturated) - Al melt was 0.89 ohmcm at 1000 ℃, and the unit ionic conductivity of the melt was 2.22 ohm" cm "(120 grit aluminum oxide blasting media).


The results show that reducing the temperature and AIF content will reduce the electronic conductivity of the electrolyte and improve the current efficiency(aluminium oxide suppliers south africa). Sterten et al. Studied the influence of impurities on current efficiency in detail. As Na ion is the main carrier of current transfer in the electrolyte, it is enriched in the boundary layer of the cathode area(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). The temperature mainly affects the secondary reaction of aluminum.

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High current efficiency can also be obtained at high temperature(100 grit aluminum oxide); Better process control can maintain lower temperature and achieve high current efficiency(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). When the cathode current density increases, the precipitated Na enters the aluminum and electrolyte and is oxidized and lost when encountering Co(white aluminum oxide abrasive 220 grit). The measurement on the industrial electrolytic cell shows that the concentration of aluminum in the electrolyte is very low.


Among them, ALCOM and tabereax pointed out that when the electrolyte temperature changes by 10 ℃, the current efficiency CE will change by 2.6%(white aluminum oxide blast media).  Thonstad sampled and analyzed the electrolyte on the 140ka prebaked cell(garnet suppliers). It is found that the aluminum concentration is very small (0.01%), only one tenth of the saturated concentration, and no aluminum concentration gradient is observed within 2cm of the surface of the liquid aluminum(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers).

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However, the operation practice of modern pre culture cell shows that there are also contradictory manifestations(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). Higher electrolysis temperature can also obtain higher current efficiency, because it is related to the composition of electrolyte(aluminum oxide abrasive blasting grit). The composition of electrolyte affects the solubility of aluminum in it(aluminum oxide suppliers usa). The degree of secondary reaction of different electrolytes is different, which is related to the stability of electrolytic cell.


Therefore, tabereauxp believes that temperature does not necessarily have a decisive impact on current efficiency, but that superheat is more important than electrolysis temperature(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). The relationship between superheat and current efficiency is as follows: the superheat is small, the current efficiency is high, the superheat increases by 10 ℃, and the current efficiency decreases by 1.2 ~ 1.5%(aluminum oxide blast media). Electrolysis temperature is the most important factor affecting current efficiency. 

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Industrial practice shows that the use of LiF-containing electrolyte in the old electrolytic cell (side-inserted or upper-inserted self-cultivation cell) can effectively improve the current efficiency(vietnam aluminum oxide), but the effect of the large-scale pre-cultivation cell is not necessarily good; the current efficiency of the large-scale pre-cultivation cell has been as high as For 95%, the positive effect of L is not obvious(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). Then, it is oxidized by the action of anode gas or air(aluminum oxide sandblasting media).


For example(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers): in an electrolyte with a major molecular ratio of 2.5(garnet abrasive), alumina of 4 to 6%, and CaF2 of 5%, the results of the study at 980 ℃ indicate that most impurities are present in the electrolyte in a monovalent state, and a large pre-melting tank Low-molecular-weight electrolytes have been used, and LiF has no effect, and it is difficult to keep the LiF content and AIF content stable during operation, which is expensive and increases the cost(wholesale brown fused alumina).

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The influence of the alumina content in the electrolyte on the current efficiency has not yet been completely clear(alumina powder suppliers). There is evidence that the content has a positive effect on the current efficiency; but there is also evidence that the content of Al2O3 has no or little effect on the current efficiency(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers).  Therefore, the American Reynolds Company was the first to use LiF-containing electrolytes (in 1965), but my country only adopted it after 1970(aluminum oxide grit).


Generally, some adjustments are made according to the conditions of each plant on the basis of conventional electrolyte composition(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). At present, the relatively definite influence mainly has the following points: reducing the size of the electrolytic cell is beneficial to increase the cathode current density and thus the current efficiency(how to choose white fused alumina).  The main factors are temperature and superheat, electrolyte composition, cell design and cell operation.

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In the case of very low content, Mg, Ba and B have almost no effect on the current efficiency, and Sn2 has no effect(white fused alumina price). The main reason is that short-term current efficiency data is more difficult to determine accurately, and the influence of alumina content on current efficiency has not been sufficiently empirical(aluminium oxide blasting grit). Regarding the optimal electrolyte composition(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). At present, a universally applicable electrolyte composition has not been found yet.


Electrolysis temperature = electrolyte's primary crystal temperature (or melting temperature) + superheat(aluminum oxide abrasive). The positive effect of LiF on current efficiency is(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers): reducing the primary crystal temperature of the electrolyte, adding 1% LiF, can reduce 9 ℃; improve the conductivity of the electrolyte, which can increase the pole pitch(aluminum oxide supplier). The basis of this method is that after the secondary reaction, aluminum is oxidized by CO2 and CO is produced.

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The reason why the current efficiency of the pre compensation tank is always greater than that of the self melting tank with only one large anode seems to be the same(aluminum oxide blast media 60 grit). In the design, the effect of placing the side carbon block on the cathode part close to the anode projection area is better: the replacement of the large anode by the small anode is beneficial to the discharge of anode gas, which is beneficial to improve the current efficiency(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers).


In the case of self-cultivation tanks, the anode gas also contains 6-7% hydrocarbons(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). The general tendency is that Al2O3 has a relatively small effect on current efficiency(high purity fused aluminum oxide). All major companies, major aluminum plants, and even the various workshops of the same aluminum plant have an electrolyte composition suitable for their own production conditions(brown corundum). Generally, the temperature decreases and the secondary reactions decrease.  

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The magnetic field and its compensation measures depend on different tank types(aluminium oxide grit suppliers). After adopting the magnetic field compensation, the influence of liquid aluminum fluctuation and disturbance can be reduced, the dissolution of Al2O3 can be reduced, and the current efficiency can be improved(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). Using MgF2 and CaF2 as electrolyte additives has a positive effect on reducing the primary crystallization temperature of electrolyte(black silicon carbide).


Nowadays, the current efficiency is measured by CO / CO analysis, tracer atom method (including controlled potential coulometer method), oxygen balance method (including mass spectrometer method) and inventory method. Many aluminum plants do not disclose the electrolyte composition as a trade secret(brown fused alumina manufacturers). The relationship between electrolytic cell design and current efficiency is still being summarized and understood(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers).

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It was proposed by Pearson Waddington in 1947, and its formula is(aluminium oxide blasting): the instrument used is CO2 infrared analyzer or oshato CO2 analyzer(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). Because this method is relatively simple, it is adopted by many manufacturers. In order to obtain accurate current efficiency data, aluminum production must be accurately determined(80 grit aluminum oxide blasting media). However, the method of accurately and timely measuring current efficiency has not been properly established.


Although the various operating parameters of the electrolytic cell can make their own assessment of their impact on current efficiency, it is difficult to find a unified rule for the comprehensive effect of various parameters, and must be optimized by each aluminum plant(aluminum oxide abrasive suppliers). These operating parameters are: electrolyte composition, aluminum liquid Height, electrolyte level, number of effects, maintenance of pole distance, etc(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers).

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Air dilution at the time of sampling(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). Need to add correction items(aluminum oxide blasting abrasive). The P.W formula has the following shortcomings, which need to be corrected when it is used: Because the primary gas C2 of the anode will react with the carbon anode, that is, the Budoval reaction, the CO produced is not caused by a secondary reaction(green silicon carbide). In addition, the start-up of the electrolytic cell, cell age and cathode conditions also have an impact.


Many researchers have proposed various correction items, but they are generally less adaptable(aluminum oxide blast media canada). The correction items depend on the sampling technology and operating conditions. When making instantaneous measurement on an industrial electrolytic cell, the error is several percentage points, mainly due to air leakage when the anode gas is collected(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand suppliers). The instantaneous current efficiency can be calculated according to the measured COL/CO ratio(alumina blasting).


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