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This temperature is the liquidus temperature of Hypereutectic molten iron transformed according to metastable system(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). For white cast iron, according to thermodynamic calculation, there is the following relationship: where w (CA) is the maximum dissolution of carbon in molten iron at temperature(aluminium oxide blasting media). Transformation temperature and carbon content of common products of gray cast iron and white cast iron.


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Compared with formula 4, when the carbon content is the same, the initial precipitation temperature of primary cementite is lower than that of primary graphite(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). The change of material state is always accompanied by the change of material energy. The phase transformation or chemical reaction in the alloy system is a process of energy change(aluminum oxide abrasive powder). Carbon atoms in the liquid phase will diffuse outward under the promotion of thermal convection.


According to the actual measurement, the following data are obtained(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). The above formula shows that silicon can increase the eutectic transformation starting temperature of gray cast iron and reduce the eutectic transformation starting temperature of white cast iron(glass bead abrasive). The slope of the curve at the intersection represents the chemical potential (partial molar free energy) of the component with this component. 


Difference between two eutectic transition start temperatures = 4.6 + 26.7 (% Si). It can be seen that silicon plays a significant role in increasing the difference of eutectic transition starting temperature(aluminum oxide sand). For Fe-C binary alloy without silicon, the temperature is only 4.6 ℃, while when x (SI) is 2%, the temperature reaches 58 ℃(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). If the nucleation conditions of graphite in liquid phase are appropriate, primary graphite will precipitate.


Thermodynamics defines the state function - free energy to judge the process of phase transition and chemical reaction(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). When the chemical composition of reactants is certain, the basic factor affecting the change of free energy is temperature(brown aluminum oxide). When the system pressure is constant, the free energy is not only related to temperature, but also related to component concentration and interaction energy between component atoms.


At constant temperature and pressure(aluminium oxide sandblasting grit), the direction in which the free energy of the system of phase transition or chemical reaction decreases (Ag < 0) is the direction in which the phase transition or reaction proceeds spontaneously(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). When the change of free energy reaches the minimum value, that is, Ag = 0, the phase transition is no longer carried out and the reaction reaches equilibrium(aluminum oxide for sale).


The free energy of a phase is a function of temperature and component concentration in the phase(steel shot abrasive). The relationship between free energy and component concentration at different temperatures is needed to analyze the phase transition process. According to thermodynamic calculation, most U-shaped free energy composition curves at a certain temperature can be drawn(aluminum oxide grit blasting). The curve position varies with temperature(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel).


The chemical potential of the same component in multiple phases in equilibrium is equal(180 grit aluminum oxide). The free energy component curve of each equilibrium phase must have a common tangent. In the formula, the data in square brackets are the influence of acid and silicon content on austenite solidus temperature(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). It can be seen that the influence of silicon on austenite solidus temperature is less than that on austenite liquidus temperature.


When the melt temperature is higher than the liquidus temperature, the free energy of the liquid phase of any component is less than the self bending energy of the solid phase that may precipitate(80 grit aluminum oxide). If the component line of a component point intersects with the curve, the intersection represents the free energy value of the phase with the component(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). The energy conditions of alloy phase transformation are as follows.


At this temperature, austenite and high carbon phase in cast iron can not precipitate(silicon carbide grit). When the molten iron is subcooled below the liquidus temperature, from the free energy composition curve, the free energy of the liquid phase with composition w (c) is higher than that of the equilibrium mixture of liquid phase and austenite, and the difference is the thermodynamic driving force for the precipitation of austenite(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). 


The free energy difference between the new phase and the parent phase is the driving force of phase transformation, which promotes the phase transformation(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). The new phase separation reduces the free energy of the system. The more free energy is reduced, the easier the transformation is(white aluminum oxide). The carbon equilibrium concentration in the liquid phase increases with the decrease of temperature, forming an outward carbonization gradient.


The temperature decreases further and austenite grows further(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). After solid phase precipitation, the difference of carbon concentration between liquid phase and graphite interface and between liquid phase and austenite interface continues to exist(silicon carbide powder). The chemical potential gradient in liquid phase makes carbon atoms diffuse, the carbon atoms in liquid phase near graphite interface are saturated, and graphite further grows.


Therefore, when the eutectic component molten iron is subcooled below the equilibrium eutectic transition temperature(70 grit aluminum oxide), carbon and iron are in supersaturation at the same time, and the liquid phase free energy is higher than the equilibrium mixing free energy of austenite graphite(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). The above formulas only consider the influence of silicon, and the influence of dynamic factors is also very significant in the actual casting process.


The difference between the two temperatures is called undercooling(alumina abrasive). Undercooling is a common phenomenon of accumulating energy required for phase transition. If the solidification conditions promote the transformation of the alloy according to the stable system, the liquid phase will change to austenite + graphite(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). The difference of free energy is the thermodynamic driving force for the precipitation of graphite(aluminium oxide sand).


When the hypereutectic component molten iron is cooled to the temperature below the liquidus, its carbon concentration exceeds the eutectic equilibrium concentration(black aluminum oxide). The free energy of supercooled molten iron is higher than the two-phase mixing free energy of liquid phase and graphite equilibrium. The carbon concentration in the liquid phase increases continuously, and finally reaches the eutectic composition(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel).


The solidification structure of this cast iron is very sensitive to thermal undercooling(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). When the liquid iron is subcooled below the eutectic temperature of the Fe FEC phase diagram and begins to transform, cementite austenite eutectic (white cast iron structure) is produced(alumina sand); Graphite austenite eutectic (gray cast iron structure) is produced when undercooling is below the eutectic temperature of Fe-C (graphite) and above the eutectic temperature of Fe FEC phase diagram.


In the solidification process, when the solute concentration entering the solid phase is lower than that entering the liquid phase, more solutes will be enriched in the liquid phase at the front of the solidification interface with the decrease of temperature(best abrasive garnet sand suppliers israel). Too cold(pink corundum). During the cooling process, the phenomenon that the actual phase transformation temperature is lower than the equilibrium transformation temperature is called "supercooling".


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