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Theoretically, it is possible to collect the energy carried by these emissions(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). In fact, it is difficult because the gas is captured from the gas collecting hood of hundreds of electrolytic cells and treated before being discharged to the atmosphere(brown corundum). Only the transportation of raw materials and the energy consumption during the transportation of aluminum production are discussed here. 

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Only a very small part of the heat is adsorbed back to the system(brown fused alumina manufacturers). In the United States, the energy required to promote the electrolytic reaction can be obtained from the change value of Gibbs free energy. Therefore, △ h of aluminum electrolysis reaction provides the minimum theoretical energy required (required for reaction and balance).  According to the report of the U.S(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). This makes aluminum a "cradle to cradle" LCA product(china brown fused alumina manufacturers).

The calculation results show that the energy required to maintain the system equilibrium is provided by the difference between the reaction heat ah and the Gibbs free energy △ G(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). Since the Gibbs free energy is less than the reaction heat of alumina reduction, additional energy should be added to the system to maintain the temperature of the system, otherwise the system will cool with the progress of the reaction(aluminium oxide blast media).

The electrolytic cell works under atmospheric conditions and there is no pressure change in the electrolytic process(80 grit aluminum oxide blasting media). See Appendix III for thermodynamic dimensions and details used to calculate the minimum energy consumption for aluminum smelting(aluminum oxide abrasive suppliers). For reactants and products, the calculation of energy required for temperature change is based on their heat capacity (CG) data(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). These data are also shown in Appendix L Ⅲ.

Therefore, the atomic weight of aluminum is 2698 and has a positive trivalent charge(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). Department of energy, the production of raw materials in the United States consumed 8.2kwh per kilogram of aluminum in 2000, accounting for about 28% of the total energy consumption of raw aluminum production(aluminum oxide blast media canada). The Gibbs free energy divided by Faraday amperage is the minimum voltage required to drive the reaction.

According to Faraday's law, 96485 coulombs is required to supply the electrolytic cell with 1 gram equivalent of an element and compound(aluminium oxide grit suppliers). Faraday's law is written into a more general expression for the theoretical minimum current required for electrolytic production(green silicon carbide). This value is under ideal conditions, that is, no reversible reaction consuming current and no concentration gradient or bubble(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). Therefore, the gram equivalent is 8.99(white aluminum oxide blast media).

When aluminum is obtained directly from alumina decomposition (anodic precipitation of oxygen), the energy (Ag) required to promote the reaction is 8.16kwh/kg, the heat energy required to maintain heat balance is 0.48kwh/kg, and the heat energy (CP) required to maintain molten aluminum is 0.39kwh/kg(aluminum oxide blasting media). In fact, the cell voltage and current efficiency change, which are restricted by the conditions such as the design of the electrolytic cell(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers).

Therefore, the required theoretical minimum energy consumption is 9.03kwh/kg-al (Note(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers): if the gas emission temperature is 960 ℃, the total theoretical minimum energy consumption is 9.30kwh/kg-al)(vietnam aluminum oxide). Since the inert anode is used, the anode gas is oxygen and the anode is not consumed, the calculated reaction formula is the calculated system and conditions are the same as the above systems(wholesale brown fused alumina). 

However, the electrolyte used in the production of aluminum electrolysis, in which cryolite and aluminum fluoride are only a small amount of consumption, and in the transfer of aluminum and molten aluminum, there is a small amount of electrolyte loss(aluminium oxide suppliers south africa). Its energy consumption. Compared with the total energy consumption, the above-mentioned transportation energy consumption accounts for a small share(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers).

The minimum energy consumption of the Bayer process involves dissolution(aluminum oxide sandblasting sand), separation and decomposition processes(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). Since there is no net chemical reaction and temperature change in the Bayer process, the theoretical minimum energy consumption is zero, but the third step of aluminum hydroxide calcination, namely aluminum hydroxide dehydration, has a theoretical minimum energy consumption of 0.14kWh/kg-Al(china aluminum oxide sandblasting).

According to the data, in 2000, 0.45kg of carbon anode was required for every kilogram of primary aluminum produced in 2000, which required approximately 0.61kWh of energy consumption and 20.12kg of CO emissions(how to choose white fused alumina). According to data from the United States in 1995, the energy consumption of producing 1kg anodes is 1.36kWh, and the energy consumption of carbon anodes required to produce lkg aluminum is 067kWh(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers).

The energy value that we research and discuss is based on the analysis of energy value(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). In addition(corundum powder), the minimum energy consumption of alumina theory is to produce metallurgical grade alumina from bauxite, metallic aluminum is made from alumina, which can be calculated according to the reaction of the process(aluminum oxide suppliers usa). The change of the working temperature of the electrolytic cell has only a weak effect on the theoretical energy consumption. 

Therefore, in the case of aluminum smelting (inert anode), and its theoretical minimum energy consumption is 9.03kWh/ton-Al(china white aluminium oxide). The minimum theoretical energy consumption for the production of carbon anodes is composed of the following: Distilling coal pitch to obtain coal tar binder, and about one-third of the pitch binder is lost during the firing process(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). The total is estimated to be about 20kg/ton-Al, which is not considered here(aluminum oxide sand).

The total theoretical minimum energy consumption (manufacturing pre-cultured anodes) is 5.85kW/kg anodes(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). The theoretical minimum energy consumption data for the production of molten metal aluminum by aluminum electrolysis is obtained through thermodynamic calculations(aluminum oxide blast media 60 grit). There should also be an implicit energy consumption of 5.10kWh/kg anode as part of the total theoretical energy consumption(white aluminum oxide abrasive 220 grit).

In the calculation, it is assumed that the reactants entering the electrolytic cell and the products and by-products leaving the electrolytic cell are all at room temperature, while the molten aluminum leaves the electrolytic cell at 960°C(garnet abrasive suppliers). For example, when the working temperature of the electrolytic cell changes 100°C within the range of 700 to 1100°C, its impact on the theoretical minimum energy consumption is less than 1%(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers).

The energy value of the fuel obtained from pitch carbonization is 0.75kWh/kga(white fused alumina suppliers), which is a measure of the theoretical energy consumption in anode manufacturing(best sandblasting abrasive wholesale suppliers). Some studies assume that the gas leaving the electrolytic cell is 960°C, and the theoretical minimum energy consumption calculated in those studies is 25 to 3.5% higher than this calculation(black silicon carbide). The diagram is the theoretical boundary of the computing system (electrolyzer)(sandblasting sand).

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