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In acidic melt (CR-1.6), the negative overvoltage is higher than that in alkaline medium (CR-46)(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). Qiu Zhuzi et al. measured the influence of different molecular ratios and temperatures on the cathode overvoltage(white fused alumina manufacturers). Although aluminum is preferentially discharged and precipitated in a wrong electrolysis environment, the precipitation potential difference between sodium and aluminum is only 250mV, which is not much different.


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Compared with the electrolyte without precipitation, when alumina precipitation is formed in acidic electrolyte, the expansion caused by clock increases by 25%(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). In an acid culture, the density of the electrolyte in the boundary layer is higher than that of the electrolyte itself, thus promoting natural convection(wholesale brown fused alumina). At this time, since the electrolyte or metal interface is always fluctuating, it is very problematic to place the reference electrode.


The results are shown in the figure(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). Under the conditions of electrolysis, the conditions under which sodium may be preferentially precipitated are(white fused alumina price): the temperature of the electrolysis ellipse increases; the molecular ratio of the electrolyte increases, the current density of the cathode increases, and the electrolytic cell is locally supercooled, which hinders the diffusion of sodium ions in the electrolyte near the cathode(80 grit aluminum oxide blasting media).


Therefore, it depends on the current density and mass transfer rate(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). VetynkovMM studied the relationship between sodium content in industrial electrolyzers and electrolysis temperature, electrolyte molecular batch and alumina concentration in the electrolyte(aluminum oxide suppliers usa). The penetration of electrolyte into carbon materials is strengthened due to the energization (polarization) of carbon materials and the formation of chloride.


To sum up(aluminium oxide blasting grit), the precipitation of sodium on the cathode can be regarded as the measurement process of the lake pole(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). As mentioned earlier, the precipitation potential of sodium and aluminum in cryolite-lead oxide melt is similar(aluminum oxide blast media 60 grit). The expansion of the Shili Pingcai leads to the uplift and uplift of the carbon inner village. Flaking. In this reaction (at 1000°C), the activity of sodium is equal to 0.034, which corresponds to the vapor pressure of sodium at this time.


Under normal conditions of aluminum electrolysis, the precipitation potential of aluminum is 250mV higher than that of sodium(aluminium oxide blast media). Only when the temperature rises, the molecular ratio increases(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). When the current density of the cathode is large and the cathode current density is increased, the precipitation potential of sodium can be higher than the error precipitation potential, and sodium is precipitated from the cathode(alumina powder suppliers).


At this time, the NaF content in the electrolyte in the cathode zone is high, and Na may be preferentially precipitated(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). Earlier, Asbe discovered that at 400°C, sodium atoms can enter the strong interlayers of the rock, which will cause the lattice parameters of graphite to change, from 3.35A to 46A(aluminium oxide suppliers south africa). As a precaution, N ions carry current and migrate to the interface, A ions discharge on the interface, and the formed N diffuses away.


In addition, the research of Oye et al. pointed out that sodium in aluminum reacts as follows: it is the main cause of sodium infiltration into carbon materials(alumina black). Studies have shown that at high temperatures, the clock precipitated on the cathode has three destinations: it becomes steam and burns in contact with oxygen or air when it leaves the electrolyte, directly enters the cathode, and enters the electrolyte(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). Obviously, alkaline electrolyte is an important cause of sodium expansion(aluminum oxide grit).


Another study points out that Na is the main material for penetration(aluminium oxide grit suppliers). With the increase of molecular ratio in electrolyte, the penetration rate and saturation night of Na also increase, but decrease with the increase of stone egg degree of carbon materials, It is also found that sodium is a wetting agent conducive to melt penetration(vietnam aluminum oxide). This is later confirmed by many researchers through a variety of experiments, and they believe that this is the most possible mechanism(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia).


In the diffusion layer of the cathode, how ionic entities diffuse out and migrate in(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). Asbjrn Soheiml proposed a schematic diagram of mass transfer in the boundary layer(aluminum oxide blast media canada). The reason is that the wettability of electrolyte and carbon cathode becomes worse, the mass transfer in precipitation becomes worse, and the overvoltage of aluminum precipitation increases, resulting in the enhancement of sodium precipitation.


Generally, the sodium permeability is closely related to the molecular ratio and rigid electrode current density(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). Compared with the electrolyte without precipitation(china brown fused alumina manufacturers), when lead oxide precipitation is formed in alkaline electrolyte, the sodium expansion increases by 154%, because the latter is a fast ionic conductor, which greatly increases the sodium expansion, which will cause the overall expansion of carbon blocks to reach 3.4%(aluminum oxide blast media).


Therefore(white aluminum oxide blast media), this study questioned the appropriateness of using a large amount of alkaline materials during the start-up of the electrolytic cell(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia).  In the interface layer, only aluminum-containing complex ions and F ions move to the boundary layer. Therefore, it is usually easier to determine the content of sodium in aluminum(white aluminum oxide abrasive 220 grit). Aluminum carbide is a yellow compound that decomposes immediately in contact with water to form oxygen, alumina and methane.


As for the sodium embedded carbon cathode, two main mechanisms are proposed: one is the vapor migration mechanism, the other is the diffusion mechanism(aluminum oxide supplier). NaCN is directly generated from relevant elements, but it is unstable. It can be generated in electrolyte in ammonia rich atmosphere. As soon as Mo Xian'an and others found that there was sediment in the tank, it would swell due to the addition of sodium phosphate(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia).


At this time, many cathode studies also draw the following results(aluminum oxide abrasive suppliers): the most serious sodium penetration occurs in amorphous low calcined non coal, while the slowest sodium migration occurs in pre compensated graphite cathode carbon blocks(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). It is found that with the increase of molecular ratio, the speech degree of sodium also increases, and sodium can form embedded compounds Cuna and cpna.oye after entering the carbon layer(brown fused alumina suppliers).


In addition to the precipitation of sodium, aluminum carbide, sodium carbonate compounds and oxides are also produced(how to choose white fused alumina). It is easy to form on the carbon cathode, which affects the quality of aluminum and the service life of the cathode. Tingk et al. Studied the relationship between molecular ratio and sodium content in aluminum(brown corundum). The results obtained are shown in the figure(best selling abrasive blast media suppliers malaysia). The main destination of sodium in aluminum is to penetrate into carbon.


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