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Generally speaking, the research on cathode process is not as deep and extensive as that on anode process(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). Due to the high temperature and strong corrosivity of the medium in this study, many difficulties are encountered in the fine measurement of physical and chemical properties. Therefore, a ions should precipitate before Na ions during electrolysis(aluminum oxide suppliers usa). This is a sign of the electrolytic cell overheating. 


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It was once thought that the cathode process was relatively simple(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). Many situations of cathode are very complex, and its real mechanism has not been fully understood, so it needs to be studied in detail(aluminum oxide abrasive suppliers). Starting from the precipitation of aluminum, that is, the main cathode process, the decomposition voltage of oxide, cathode process, cathode overvoltage, the precipitation of sodium in cathode foundation process, etc(white aluminum oxide abrasive 220 grit).


The main process on the cathode is the precipitation of aluminum, and its preparation process is the precipitation of sodium and the dissolution of aluminum(80 grit aluminum oxide blasting media). From the structure of the electrolyte, it can be seen that the main ionic entity in aluminum electrolyte is complex ions, Na ions exist in the form of free ions, and aluminum exists in the form of composite ions containing aluminum(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). Many monographs have commented on this.


However, as mentioned earlier, in the early stage, experiments with radioisotopes proved that Na ions carried 99% of the current during electrolysis(aluminum oxide grit), and Na ions should be precipitated preferentially(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). Whether an or Na precipitates on the cathode during aluminum electrolysis has been debated for a long time in the past, and both sides have experimental basis(alumina black). Now it can be confirmed that Al precipitates before Na in the electrolytic environment.


The main basis is as follows: at 970 ℃, in cryolite melt, the NA activity in L is about 0.10, and the corresponding potential difference is 160mv(aluminium oxide suppliers south africa). At 1000 ℃, the activity of Na is 005, and the potential difference is - 250Mv(brown corundum). This activity of Na is equivalent to the Na content in al of 7dppm (molecular ratio cr-20) or 200pm (CR = 3.0)(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). The conclusion is that in cryolite melt at 1000 ℃, the precipitation potential of Na is negative 250Mv than that of al.


Therefore, Belyaev and aramov also demonstrated the first precipitation of aluminum in their Monographs on aluminum electrolysis(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). This view is supported by experiments(white fused alumina price). The study of melt tray electrochemistry shows that in the fourteen halide melts, from the comparison of the electrochemical sequence of Na ion and a ion, the position of Na ion is before a ion, that is, a ion has more electrical properties than Na ion(aluminium oxide grit suppliers). Later, continue to measure 50-100QmV data.


Due to the lack of standard reference electrode in molten salt, it is impossible to judge the precipitation order of metal ions based on standard hydrogen electrode in aqueous solution(aluminum oxide blast media canada). Therefore, in the electrolytic environment, it can be determined that priority should be given to discharge precipitation(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). The study of cathode process is the basis for improving current efficiency, prolonging the life of electrolytic cell and smooth electrode process.


On the industrial cell, when the electrolysis test is overheated, a yellow flame appears, which means that a large amount of sodium is precipitated(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). It was once one of the arguments to make the above qualitative judgment on which ions precipitated preferentially in aluminum electrolysis. When the molecular ratio is 24, it is reduced to 0004%(how to choose white fused alumina). It can be seen that reducing the molecular ratio can reduce the precipitation of sodium.


The flame is bright yellow(aluminum oxide wholesale). When the molecular ratio increases, the potential difference of sodium precipitation decreases immediately; the e diagram shows that the decrease of the concentration of zirconium oxide at different temperatures easily causes the precipitation of sodium(alumina powder suppliers). In alkaline melts, the situation is just the opposite(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). When the electrolysis conditions are changed, sodium will also be preferentially precipitated, or at the same time.


The sodium vapor reacts with air and burns(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). The influence of the electrolyte molecular ratio can be seen more clearly from the figure(vietnam aluminum oxide), which shows the relationship between the sodium content in aluminum and the molecular ratio in an industrial electrolytic cell. When the molecular ratio increases, the sodium content in aluminum increases significantly, for example, when the molecular ratio is 29(brown fused alumina manufacturers). Aluminum The sodium content is Q014%.


also pointed out that the cathode overvoltage is a concentration overvoltage, controlled by mass transfer, that is, the size of the overvoltage depends on the structure of the electrolysis comb and the fluid flow conditions in the fine(aluminum oxide blast media). In the industrial tank, in order to prevent the precipitation of sodium, it is better to use a low molecular ratio and low electrolysis temperature, and to maintain a relatively high alumina concentration(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa).


Earlier(high purity fused aluminum oxide), the tube used a tungsten probe to put in and take out the molten aluminum layer for measurement, and the cathode overvoltage was about 100mV(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). Although the F ions move to the boundary layer, the F ions still have to leave the cathode to ensure electrical neutrality after the aluminum is discharged(white fused alumina suppliers). The relationship between the molecular ratio and the cathode overvoltage is consistent with the results of Polykov et al.


Predecessors' research work has shown that at a temperature of 970~1010℃, when the cathode current density is 04~07Aam2, the cathodic overvoltage is 50~100mV(wholesale brown fused alumina). Therefore, this overvoltage can be greatly reduced by stirring the culture body(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). More specifically, the mass transfer coefficient of the reactant is a decisive factor, which is also determined by the ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the thickness of the boundary layer(white aluminum oxide blast media).


These conditions are electrolysis temperature, electrolyte molecular ratio (NaF/AF, molar ratio), alumina concentration and cathode current density(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). It is concluded that the cathode overvoltage increases as the molecular ratio decreases and the temperature decreases, but it is not clear which parameter is more preferred(aluminum oxide blast media 60 grit). It is difficult to obtain satisfactory accuracy in the measurement of cathode overvoltage on an industrial electrolytic cell.


Polyakov et al. carried out the measurement of electromotive force and overvoltage based on the above concepts, and the electromotive force data was consistent with the data published earlier(aluminium oxide blasting media). Studies have shown that the concentration overvoltage of the cathode is dominated by natural convection(cheap sponge polishing abrasive suppliers usa). It can be seen from a on the figure that the potential difference of sodium precipitation drops sharply as the temperature rises(china brown fused alumina manufacturers).


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