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Top countries with the richest mineral resources

Mineral resources are very important natural resources, which are formed after millions or even hundreds of millions of years of geological changes. It is an important material basis for the development of social production. The so-called mineral resources refer to the solid, liquid and gaseous natural resources formed by geological processes and with utilization value.


There are about 3000 known minerals, most of which are solid inorganic substances, and only dozens of them are liquid (such as oil and natural mercury), gaseous (such as natural gas, carbon dioxide and helium) and solid organic substances (such as oil shale and amber). Most of the solid minerals belong to crystalline minerals, and only a few (such as boehmite) belong to amorphous minerals.


Natural elements or compounds from other celestial bodies outside the earth are called cosmic minerals. Minerals are extremely important strategic resources for countries all over the world and the focus of game among countries all over the world. The distribution of global mineral resources is extremely uneven, among which the top countries account for more than 80% of global mineral resources. As follows:


1. Russia

Estimated value of resources: $9.2 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Russia is the country with the largest land area in the world, and most areas are within the range of 50 ° ~ 70 ° north latitude. It is precisely because of the high latitude that the temperature in Russia is low all year round; The vast area provides conditions for complex terrain and rich minerals. Russia is rich in mineral resources. It is one of the few countries in the world that can be self-sufficient in resources.


Russia has great potential of mineral resources. It once owned 37% of the world's mineral resources. Russia has discovered and proved more than 20000 mining areas (including fuel resources). According to relevant information, in the structure of mineral base, black and non-ferrous metals account for 13%, non-metallic mineral raw materials account for 15%, and diamonds and precious metals account for 1%. Russia's mineral resources security is higher than that of other countries, and most of its mineral reserves rank among the highest in the world.

World ocean metal mineral resources

Russia's natural resources mainly include coal, oil, natural gas, gold, wood, iron, etc. Russia has 13.1 billion mu of forest, with a forest timber volume of 80.7 billion cubic meters, ranking first in the world; Oil reserves rank seventh in the world; Natural gas reserves rank first in the world; Fresh water resources are 4.7 trillion cubic meters, ranking second in the world; Coal reserves are the second largest in the world; Gold reserves are the third largest in the world; Rare earth reserves are the second in the world; Diamond reserves rank first in the world; Uranium reserves are the seventh in the world.


The proved reserves of iron ore, diamond, antimony and tin ore rank first in the world, and the reserves of aluminum ore rank second. The reserves of potassium salt account for 31% and the reserves of cobalt ore account for 21% in the world. Russia's other mineral reserves also account for a considerable share of the world. Such rich mineral resources are a solid foundation for ensuring Russia's domestic demand and realizing its export. 37% of Russia's mineral resources have been put into industrial development. The mining industry plays an important role in supporting Russia's economic survival in the difficult period.


As early as the 1990s, when the mining volume of minerals (excluding diamond) decreased, the mining volume of a series of minerals (coal, nickel, cobalt, iron, rare metals, platinum, diamond, apatite, potassium salt, etc.) in Russia still accounted for a certain proportion of the world, and it is the world's largest exporter of major non-ferrous metals: aluminum, copper and nickel. The export of mineral raw materials and processed products (excluding oil and natural gas) guarantees more than 20% of Russia's foreign exchange income.


Most of Russia's mineral resources are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East in the East. The region contains more than 80% of all kinds of proven mineral resources in Russia. The potential value of reserves has reached about 25 trillion US dollars. It is the most important mineral raw material base in Russia. Moreover, it is also an area where the only remaining mineral resources in the world have not been fully developed and utilized.


2. United States

Estimated value of resources: $5.9 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: the United States is a Federal Republic constitutional country composed of Washington, D.C., 50 states, Guam and many other overseas territories. With a land area of 9.63 million square kilometers (plus the sovereign part of the United States in the Great Lakes and the area of coastal waters such as estuaries, harbors and inland seas), and a population of 320 million, English is widely used. It is a country of immigrants.


The United States ranks second in the world with a natural resource value of $5.9 trillion. It once owned 32% of the world's coal, the third largest rare earth reserves, and ranked among the world's largest reserves in wood, natural gas, oil, gold and copper. Rare earth reserves are the third in the world; Copper reserves are 91 million tons, ranking second in the world; Oil reserves rank 12th in the world; Natural gas reserves rank fifth in the world; The coal reserve ranks first in the world; 3.05 trillion cubic meters of water resources, the third in the world; Gold reserves rank fifth in the world.


The United States is an important producer and consumer of mineral products in the world. The United States is rich in mineral resources. More than 2500 kinds of minerals have been found. Geological exploration has confirmed that the United States has 88 kinds of minerals with proven mineral reserves, making it one of the countries with the richest proven reserves in the world. Although the total amount of mineral resources in the United States is rich, some mineral resources are not rich, and even some mineral resources are mainly imported from abroad.


Among many minerals, resources are relatively abundant: energy minerals such as coal and uranium, metal mineral resources such as copper, gold, molybdenum, lead and zinc, and non-metallic mineral resources such as boron, sulfur, phosphorus, natural alkali, bentonite, diatomite, kaolin, wollastonite, talc and gypsum. Among them, copper, gold and chemical fertilizer mineral resources are the most abundant.

alumina mine

In addition, the reserves or resources of gypsum, talc (and pyrophyllite), kaolin, bentonite and other minerals in the United States are also in a leading position in the world. For the United States, petroleum energy resources, iron ore, manganese ore, chromium ore, nickel ore and other iron and steel mineral resources are not rich, while bauxite, arsenic ore, bismuth ore, tungsten ore, tin ore, quartz, fluorite, mica ore and other dozens of minerals are scarce resources.


Oil and gas resources in the United States are mainly distributed in more than 30 oil and gas basins in five major oil and gas regions in China. The five major oil and gas areas are: Gulf of Mexico oil and gas area, North American platform oil and gas area, California oil and gas area, rocky mountain oil and gas area and Alaska oil and gas area. At present, the proved oil reserves are mainly concentrated in Texas, Louisiana, Alaska and California.


Among them, Texas's oil reserves account for 22% of the total reserves of the United States and Louisiana's 20%; Alaska accounts for 20%; California accounts for 18%. American coal resources are mainly distributed in Montana, Illinois, Wyoming, West Virginia, Kansas, Pennsylvania, Texas and Indiana. Among them, Montana and Illinois are the two states with the richest coal resources in the United States.


Montana's coal resources account for 24% of the total coal resources in the United States, while Illinois accounts for 21% of the total coal resources in the United States. American metal mineral resources such as copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, molybdenum and uranium are mainly distributed in the western region, including Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Montana, Idaho, California, Alaska, Colorado and New Mexico. Iron ore resources are mainly distributed in the area of superior lake.


3. Saudi Arabia

Estimated value of resources: $4.7 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Saudi Arabia is a veritable "oil kingdom" in the world. Its oil reserves and production rank first in the world, making it one of the richest countries in the world. Saudi Arabia is the world's largest producer of desalinated seawater, accounting for about 21% of the world's total. Saudi Arabia was once a desert country with barren land, scarce resources and sparse population.


The discovery of oil in the Dalan region in 1938 has fundamentally changed the history of Saudi Arabia. Relying on the development and utilization of oil resources, Saudi Arabia has developed from a poor country to a powerful emerging country with the highest per capita income in the world. Saudi Arabia has gold, silver, copper, iron, bauxite, phosphorus and other minerals. There are abundant oil and gas reserves on land and offshore along the coast of the eastern Persian Gulf.


The bryami oasis in the east of the rubkhari desert is a disputed area among Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. As early as 2005, Saudi Arabia ranked first in the world in terms of oil production, oil export, and remaining recoverable reserves of 36.3 billion tons (accounting for 26% of the world's reserves). All three indicators ranked first in the world. The annual output of natural gas once accounted for 4% of the world's reserves, ranking fourth in the world.


Saudi Arabia is extremely rich in oil resources. The proven oil reserves rank first in the world, accounting for about 1 / 4 of the world's oil reserves. Not only that, Saudi Arabia's oil also has the characteristics of various quality, ranging from heavy oil to light oil, which can meet the needs of refineries all over the world. Saudi Arabia's oil exploration engineering center is one of the largest and most advanced scientific research facilities in the world, and it is second to none in the Middle East.


The widely used three-dimensional seismic detection technology can accurately divide the boundaries of newly discovered oil reservoirs; The application of lateral drilling technology makes it possible to explore in difficult areas and offshore. Saudi Arabia's most successful exploration is in the central Arab region. The crude oil extracted from here is basically sulfur-free and light. The crude oil can be refined into light products with high added value at a very low cost.

oil exploitation

Saudi Arabia also vigorously develops drilling platform technology and strives to tap the potential of offshore oil production. Since the large-scale exploration in the 1960s, Saudi Arabia has discovered about 70 oil and gas fields, including the world's largest jiawo oilfield and the world's largest offshore oilfield - safania oilfield.


To sum up, Saudi Arabia has the world's first oil reserves, the world's sixth natural gas reserves and rich gold, silver, copper, iron, bauxite, phosphorus and other mineral resources. Overall, the country has about $47 trillion in natural resources, ranking third in the world.


4. Canada

Estimated value of resources: $4.3 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Canada has a territorial area of 9.98 million square kilometers, ranking second in the world. Canada is known as the "land of maple leaves", and its capital is Ottawa. Canada is a typical English French bilingual country. Diamond is one of the most developed countries in the world due to its rich natural and technological resources.


Canada is rich in mineral resources, with about 70 kinds of minerals known. Its mineral resources occupy a very important position in the world, and the reserves of many minerals rank in the forefront of the world. Among them, indium, potassium salt and sulfur rank first in the world; The second place is petroleum, niobium, tungsten and asbestos; In particular, crude oil reserves are second only to Saudi Arabia in the world, of which 97% exist in the form of oil sand.


The proven oil sand crude oil reserves are 173.2 billion barrels, accounting for 81% of the world's proven oil sand reserves. The third place is uranium, cadmium, selenium and gypsum; Nickel, lead, platinum group metals, molybdenum and tantalum rank fourth; Diamond, zinc and gold rank sixth; Silver and titanium rank seventh; Coal ranks 10th; Copper ranked 12th; The 13th place is iron ore.


The forest area is 6 billion mu, and the timber volume is 19 billion cubic meters, ranking third in the world; Canada has 2.9 trillion cubic meters of fresh water resources, ranking fourth in the world. Nickel ore reserves are 7.89 million tons, accounting for nearly 15% of the world, ranking second. Zinc ore ranks first in the world. Canada's resource reserves rank fourth in the world, with a total resource valuation of about $4.3 trillion.


5. Brazil

Estimated value of resources: $3.4 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Brazil, with a land area of 8.515 million square kilometers, is a country with a large land area in Latin America, with a population of 189.32 million, ranking first in Latin America. 80% of the land is located in the tropics, and the southernmost part belongs to the subtropical climate. Brazil's economic strength ranks among Latin American countries. The export of mineral products is an important source of Brazil's foreign trade surplus.


Brazil is a country rich in mineral resources. Many important minerals rank among the top in the world, mainly including oil, iron ore, manganese ore, niobium tantalum ore, nickel ore, tin ore, zinc ore, lithium ore, bauxite, graphite, kaolin, talc, vermiculite, magnesite, etc. at present, there are more than 50 kinds of minerals with proven reserves.


Brazil is the second largest oil and gas resource country in South America after Venezuela. According to BP statistical review worldenergy, June 2008, the remaining proved recoverable reserves of Brazilian oil are 1.67 billion tons. Offshore oil reserves account for 88% of Brazil's total reserves. Brazil is rich in uranium resources, with proven reserves of about 163000 tons, U3O8 grade of 0.104%, and the proven reserves account for 6% of the world's proven reserves.

silicon carbide mine

At present, only 25% of Brazil's land has been explored for uranium resources. Brazil is rich in iron ore resources, with proven reserves of 16 billion tons, ranking fifth in the world. Brazil has a large amount of iron ore prospective resources. Tiesijiao and Caracas, the two largest iron ore areas in Brazil, are world-class super large iron ores, which are operated by vale mining company (CVRD) and MBR mining company. Vale mining company's iron ore output accounts for 80% of Brazil's total output.


Most iron ores in Brazil are hematite and itabirite. Brazil is rich in manganese resources, with proven reserves of 132 million tons, ranking fourth in the world. Bauxite: Brazil is rich in bauxite resources, with proven reserves of 2.7 billion tons, accounting for 8.4% of the world's bauxite resources, ranking third in the world. More than 90% of bauxite resources are distributed in Para state in northern Brazil.


Brazil is rich in niobium tantalum resources, with proven reserves of 3.761 million tons and 884000 tons respectively, ranking first in the world. Brazil has proven graphite reserves of 113 million tons. It is very rich in graphite resources, and the proven graphite reserves rank second in the world. The best graphite in Brazil is distributed in the city of Pedra Azul. The proven reserves of kaolin in Brazil are 7.7 billion tons.


Brazil is a kaolin producing and exporting country second only to the United States and Britain, producing high-quality coated kaolin for papermaking. The proved reserves of magnesite in Brazil are 345 million tons, accounting for 8.9% of the world's Magnesite resources. Brazil's proven vermiculite reserves are 23 million tons, accounting for 10.3% of the world's proven vermiculite reserves. The proved reserves of phosphate rock in Brazil are 246 million tons, which is the country with the largest phosphate production in South America.


Brazil is the world's largest crystal producer. To sum up, the main minerals produced in Brazil include oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper mine, chromite, gem, gold mine, kaolin, manganese ore, niobium tantalum ore, tin ore, niobium tantalum alloy, graphite, asbestos, tin ore, magnesite, vermiculite, granite, talc, phosphate ore, etc.


6. Australia

Estimated value of resources: $3.2 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: surrounded by the sea, Australia is the only country covering the whole continent in the world, with many unique animals, plants and natural landscapes. With a territorial area of 7.61793 million square kilometers, Australia is the most economically developed country in the southern hemisphere, the world's 12th largest economy, the world's fourth largest exporter of agricultural products, and the world's largest exporter of a variety of minerals. It is known as the "country on the wagon".


Australia is also the country with the largest number of sheep and wool exports in the world. It is known as the "country riding on the back of sheep". Australia is rich in mineral resources, oil and natural gas, with at least 70 kinds of mineral resources. Among them, bauxite reserves rank first in the world, accounting for 35% of the world's total reserves.


Australia is the world's largest producer of bauxite, alumina powder, diamonds, lead and tantalum. Australia's output of gold, iron ore, coal, lithium, manganese ore, nickel, silver, uranium and zinc also ranks first in the world. Australia is also the world's largest exporter of bituminous coal, bauxite, lead, diamonds, zinc and concentrates, the second largest exporter of alumina, iron ore and uranium, and the third largest exporter of aluminum and gold.


Proven mineral reserves with economic exploitation value in Australia: bauxite of about 3.1 billion tons, iron ore of 15.3 billion tons, bituminous coal of 511 billion tons, lignite of 411 billion tons, lead of 17.2 million tons, nickel of 9 million tons, silver of 40600 tons, tantalum of 18000 tons, zinc of 34 million tons, uranium of 610000 tons and gold of 4404 tons. Australia has 240billion liters of crude oil, 1360billion cubic meters of natural gas and 174billion liters of liquefied petroleum gas. The forest coverage area accounts for 20% of the land, the natural forest area is about 155 million hectares (23 are Eucalyptus), and the timber forest area is 1.22 million hectares.

mining ore

7. Venezuela

Estimated value of resources: $2.9 trillion

Overview of mineral resources: Venezuela is located in the north of South America and is famous for its rich oil resources. It is one of the countries with the richest proven oil reserves in the world. Oil is the main mineral resource, accounting for about 4% of the world's reserves, ranking first in South America. Venezuela is the most important oil producing country in Latin America.


The main oil reserves in Venezuela are the largest lake in Latin America - Lake Maracaibo in the northwest corner of the country. Venezuela is also rich in iron, aluminum, nickel, gold, diamond, coal and other mineral resources. In addition, there are mineral resources such as copper, lead, zinc, vanadium, titanium, phosphorus, gypsum, feldspar, barite, asbestos and a variety of clay and rare earth minerals. 


The export of petroleum and mineral products plays an important role in Venezuela's national economy. Venezuela's national iron ore reserves and resources are 14.678 billion tons, with high grade and few impurities. Its iron metal reserves rank eighth in the world. Venezuela's nickel mine production also occupies a certain position in the world. The annual nickel mine output is about 20000 tons, accounting for about 1.3% of the world's total.


Venezuela has ore reserves of more than 2 million tons (the average grade of gold is 12 g / T), ranking 13th in the world and 6th in the American continent. Gold resources are mainly distributed in Bolivarian state, and most concentrated in the southeast and East regions bordering Brazil and Guyana. Lars? With reserves of 13 million ounces (368.6 tons), christinas gold mine is considered to be one of the largest undeveloped gold mines in the world.


Venezuela is one of the few Latin American countries that produce diamond. Venezuela is an important producer of bauxite, alumina and primary aluminum in the world, accounting for 3.4% of the world's total output respectively.


white aluminium oxide
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