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White Aluminium Oxide Powder Suppliers Panama

The difference between polarization potential and reversible potential is overvoltage(alumina powder suppliers). In aluminum reduction cell, the cathode overvoltage is small, only 40 ~ 100mV(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). Therefore, the above voltage is mainly anode overvoltage, with a value of 0.4 ~ 0.6V. This requires additional energy, resulting in anode overvoltage. 


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According to the principle of electrocatalysis in modern electrochemistry(high purity fused aluminum oxide), the adsorption of components in electrolyte solution and the characteristics of electrode materials play an important role in the electrode process(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). The simplest and accepted explanation by many scholars is that the oxygen-containing ions in the electrolyte melt discharge on the active center on the surface of the carbon anode(wholesale brown fused alumina). 


When the current density is large, the discharged oxygen-containing ions increase(vietnam aluminum oxide), while the active center on the surface of the carbon anode is insufficient and forced to discharge at the inactive point. Usually the experimental electrolysis cell is a three-electrode system, using aluminum reference electrodes, and sometimes graphite reference electrodes are used to convert data into aluminum reference electrodes(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama).


Under a certain potential(aluminum oxide grit), it is possible to change the electrode reaction mechanism or change (accelerate) the electrode reaction rate through the adsorption of components in the solution or changing the physicochemical properties of electrode materials(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). In the electrolysis with cryolite alumina melt as electrolyte, the Overvoltage on the carbon anode is very high, resulting in a great waste of electric energy(aluminium oxide blast media).


Within the current density range of molten salt electrolysis (0.5 ~ 1.0acm ~), the doped electrodes can be arranged in the following order according to the effect of electrocatalysis(aluminum oxide suppliers usa). Many studies have proved that the anode paste mixed with Li2CO3, namely "lithium salt paste", has been used in the self baking anode electrolytic cell in aluminum electrolysis industry, and has achieved great energy saving and economic benefits(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama).


Because the electrolytic cell is connected in series in the DC power supply system(white aluminum oxide blast media), the voltage of a single electrolytic cell suddenly rises(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). Liu Yexiang and his collaborators immediately carried out a lot of practical research work in this field, mainly studying the electrocatalysis of doped carbon anode, in order to reduce the Overvoltage on the anode and reduce the energy consumption of aluminum electrolysis process(white aluminum oxide abrasive 220 grit).


Because the oxygen and fluorine ions discharged on the carbon anode react with carbon to form various intermediate compounds during aluminum electrolysis, the anodic reaction process is very complex, so it is not suitable to judge the electrocatalytic activity of the electrode with simple reaction kinetic parameters(aluminum oxide blast media). It first appears near the cathode, then spreads quickly, and then diffuses to the entire electrolyte(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama).


The experimental results clearly show that except for nickel doping(aluminium oxide suppliers south africa), the oxygen evolution Overvoltage on all doped electrodes is significantly lower than that of undoped ones, which shows that most dopants have obvious electrocatalytic effect on SnO2 based inert anodes, among which Ru doping is the most significant(china brown fused alumina manufacturers). SnO2-based materials have lower resistance (0.0043Ωcm at 1000°C) and better corrosion resistance(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama).


At 1acm, the overvoltage is only about 1 / 3 of that of undoped ones, and the overvoltage is less than 0.15v when the current density is as high as 4acm2(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). The self-cultivating anode is formed by self-smelting the anode paste at the high temperature of the aluminum electrolysis process to form the anode body(white fused alumina suppliers). According to the needs of research and application, electrodes are generally prepared in three situations.


The preparation of the pre-cultured anode in the laboratory is the same as the process 2 above, and the final baking temperature must reach 1150~1200℃(how to choose white fused alumina). The steady-state potentiostat method is used to measure the polarization curve, and sometimes the off-current method is also used to measure the back electromotive force to obtain the anode polarization potential data(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). It is often used for rapid screening of electrocatalysts(aluminum oxide abrasive suppliers).


The simulation of self-cultivation anode in the laboratory is mainly to use a certain selected electrocatalyst powder(80 grit aluminum oxide blasting media), which is mixed into petroleum coke particles (aggregate of anode paste) or into liquid pitch (the viscosity of anode paste) by mechanical mixing. Binder), and then kneaded and formed into a self-melting anode paste, which needs to be fired at a temperature of about 900°C before use(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). 


According to Trasti and Kolovin’s criteria for judging the electrocatalytic activity of electrodes(aluminum oxide blast media 60 grit), from a practical point of view, we use the magnitude of overvoltages on different electrodes at a certain apparent current density as the criterion to distinguish the electrocatalytic activity of electrodes, whichever is smaller Its electrocatalytic activity is high(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). After a long time of electrolysis, it becomes transparent again(brown corundum).


The laboratory test was carried out in cryolite-saturated alumina melt (electrolyte) at 1000°C(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). In order to test the overvoltage of the working anode on the industrial electrolytic cell, the measurement method with a special "r" type reference electrode proposed by HaupinP is adopted(aluminium oxide grit suppliers). Since then, a number of electrocatalysts have been found that can significantly reduce the overvoltage of carbon anode reaction.


The Overvoltage on the electrode doped with Ru, Fe and Cr is lower than that on the PT anode under the same conditions(brown fused alumina manufacturers). The interaction between metal and molten salt can be divided into two situations: metal interacts with molten salt that contains its own metal ion, and metal interacts with molten salt that does not contain its own metal(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). When the current density is lower than 0.1Acm, the metal mist cannot be seen.


However(white fused alumina price), when the anode current density is higher than 0.5Acm, the formation of mist can be seen from the beginning of the electrolysis(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama). But Liu Yexiang first proposed the idea: adding a certain catalyst to the carbon anode to change the properties of the anode material and increase the reactive centers on the surface to accelerate the electrode reaction, thereby reducing the overvoltage of the carbon anode(aluminum oxide supplier).


In the initial stage of electrolysis, the electrolyte becomes opaque due to the presence of the metal mist(aluminum oxide blast media canada). This is because the metal mist dissolves It is caused by re-oxidation due to the effect of anode gas(aluminium oxide blasting grit). In the preparation, the composition, content, doping method, heat treatment temperature and preparation process of the dopant all have an important influence on the electrocatalytic activity of the electrode(white aluminium oxide powder suppliers panama).


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