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Austenite will also force the growth direction of growing graphite along [0001](white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). If there are many products growing at the front end of graphite crystal, it will also be forced to stop growing, and the end of graphite crystal will show spherical crown or similar spherical crown morphology. 

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However, the monomer is in a loose aggregation state(aluminium oxide blast media). The surface of agglomerated graphite seems to be formed in the process of unstable growth, and some products have moved along the surface of agglomerated graphite. It can be seen that the existence of austenite dendrites in graphite is also an important factor affecting the branching and final morphology of wax worm graphite(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). 

The figure shows the different growth modes of flake graphite, wormlike graphite and spherical graphite(glass bead blasting media suppliers). This diagram shows that the auxiliary worm graphite has the characteristics of the other two graphite growth modes(aluminum oxide blasting grit). "Graphite formed in non solidification period" refers to graphite that is not precipitated from molten iron during solidification(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland).

The three-dimensional morphology and structure of nodular graphite in malleable cast iron were studied under scanning electron microscope(aluminum oxide abrasive media). It can be seen from the formula that the velocity constant has an important influence on the decomposition rate of cementite(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). Cementite in special malleable cast iron is a thermodynamic metastable phase, and its stability decreases with the increase of temperature. 

The product has a hexagonal lattice, the c-axis of the lattice is in the direction of radiation from the center to the outside, and the crystal plane on the surface of the sphere is (0001) plane, which is similar to the structure of spherical graphite(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). The results are listed in Table 4(brown aluminum oxide). It can be seen from the figure that if the stability of cementite is closely related to chemical composition and transformation conditions.

The nodular graphite of malleable cast iron is a typical example of non solidification formation(garnet sand). The relatively complete group graphite is also covered with thorn like growth with different heights and shapes on the surface, and there is base metal inside, filling the gap between incomplete graphite monomers(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). When the growth rate is high, there is not enough carbon atoms at the graphite interface(240 grit aluminum oxide). 

Austenite will grow rapidly around the graphite crystal at a growth rate higher than that of graphite, and will block the growth front end of graphite and prevent it from growing according to the original product orientation(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). Even if the precipitated carbon atoms make the austenite in the supersaturated state, and the austenite carbon concentration near the graphite crystallization core is low, there will be a concentration difference(aluminium oxide blasting grit).

Cementite decomposition is the initial stage from metastable phase to stable phase(black aluminum oxide). The diagram shows the thermodynamic conditions for the transformation of cementite into stable phase (graphite). When branches cannot be formed, the front end of the crystal may form a round shape(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). For graphite grown in [l010] crystal direction, the barrier of austenite makes the subcrystalline sheet in graphite crystal bend or branch.

The carbon atoms will diffuse from the cementite austenite interface to the graphite nucleation position on the graphite austenite interface in the direction of decreasing the degree of carburization in austenite, and the flocculent graphite can grow(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). When the temperature increases and the activation energy decreases, the stability of cementite decreases and the transformation rate of cementite increases(150 grit aluminum oxide). 

The nucleation mechanism of flocculent graphite in solid phase is different from that of graphite in liquid phase(steel grid). The nucleation position of solid phase is a high-energy region with high degree of atomic disorder or mismatch around grain boundaries, micro pores, micro cracks and non-metallic inclusions(corundum sand). The atoms at the interface between cementite and austenite are out of order and have many vacancies(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). 

Micro holes, micro cracks in microstructure and micro cracks in martensite section or periphery caused by pre quenching of castings are suitable locations for carbon atoms(black silicon carbide). When carbon atoms diffuse to the inner surface of these pores, the nucleation will not be difficult or delayed due to the low self diffusion rate of iron atoms(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). It was found that this kind of graphite contained many radial graphite single crystals.

According to the formula, when the temperature is Ti and the composition is e (c), the composition of the interface between cementite and austenite is = (c), the chemical potential of carbon at the interface is one, the composition of the interface between graphite and austenite is w (C1), and the chemical potential of carbon at this interface is 5-c(pink corundum). These vacancies have good energy conditions to accept carbon atoms(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland).

Driven by the chemical potential difference between the two interfaces, carbon precipitates from the cementite austenite interface. Flocculent graphite is more loose(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). There is also a possibility that there are some trace elements in the metal that interfere with the normal growth of graphite(220 grit aluminum oxide blast media). The main reason for nucleation near impurities is that their linear expansion coefficient is much smaller than that of iron. 

Graphite nucleation often occurs near metal inclusions in malleable cast iron(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). Thermodynamic calculation shows that even if some of these inclusions can become graphite nucleation matrix, graphite can not form graphite core on it at annealing temperature. This is because the self diffusion rate of iron atoms is low, which has a great restrictive effect(aluminium oxide sandblasting grit). There are also some flocculent graphite in malleable cast iron.

These metals are composed of iron and silicon atoms that fail to diffuse during the formation of graphite(green silicon carbide). During annealing and heating, impurities are microscale separated from their surrounding metals, and dislocations or vacancy aggregation are generated in austenite, which becomes a suitable position to accept carbon atoms(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). After the graphite core is formed in other positions, the iron atoms still can not diffuse fully.

The practice shows that low temperature pretreatment (holding at 300-500 ℃ for 4-5h(alumina grit); or holding at 750 ℃ for 1-2h) or pre cold deformation before graphitization annealing can increase the number of dislocations and vacancies, shorten the graphitization process and increase the number of graphite(white fused alumina wholesale suppliers ireland). Many factories have incorporated low-temperature pretreatment into the process procedures of normal production(fine grit aluminum oxide).

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